Needle looms are large machines that can contain from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of needles. Their purpose is to mechanically intertwine fibers to produce strength in the fabric. A tacker or preneedle loom is used to turn a batt of fibers into low density fabric. After that, one or more finish looms further consolidate the fabric making it thinner and stronger. Usually a preneedle loom has low needle density and the needles come down into the fabric from the top. The first finish loom usually needles up from the bottom. Other finish looms can needle from the top or bottom. A quad loom needles alternately from both top and bottom. Needle looms come in many shapes and sizes. The primary manufacturers are Dilo, Asselin, and Fehrer (Oerlikon Neumag Austria).